Manual Muscle Testing (MMT)
MMT is a phenomena commonly associated with Applied Kinesiology but also has a long history with many studies and published papers to include recently: Kendal et al. 2005, Panjabi 2006, and Cuthbert & Goodheart in 2007.
MMT is a primary diagnostic tool which is used as a dynamic monitored primary feedback mechanism between the nervous system and the skeletal muscles.
Some of the main attributes of MMT * is to identify and monitor aberrant physiology between:
- Neurologic disorganization
- Viscerosomatic relationships (aberrant autonomic dysfunction)
- Spinal segmental dysarthria
- Dysfunction of cranial bones & cerebral spinal fluid dynamics
- Adverse mechanical traction on spinal dura and meningeal membranes
- Peripheral and Cranial Nerve Entrapment
- Lymphatic and vascular impairment
- Meridian system imbalance
It should also be noted that neoplasms being non-nerve innervated thus not connected to the nervous system renders MMT directly non-influential.
Academically, MMT is explained with standard neurophysiology:
Simply, all MMT ultimately is testing the Central Integrative State (CIS) of the ventral horn within the spinal cord. The CIS is influenced by both descending fibers from higher brain centers (to include reflexogenic systems within the cerebellum and brainstem) as well as incoming afferent stimulus from sense organs from the viscera and somatic tissues. The total effect of [aberrant] stimulus (synaptic activity) can be either inhibitory or excitatory extending its influence on the CIS which is measurable through a manual muscle test as a conditionally inhibited or conditionally facilitated muscle test.
Additional explanation of neurophysiological pathways involved in MMT also described by
Richard Belli, D.C., DACNB, FABNN
* Additional information is available in a recent publication,
Gangassas Press ISBN: 978-0-9887452-1-6